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Analysis for electrical energy and overall efficiency in distribution networks with harmonic distortion
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Traditionally, harmonics are ignored in overall efficiency and energy usage studies. However, in the modern era, power systems contain levels of harmonics which can no longer be ignored by engineers, planners, energy conservationists and economists. The directions of power flows have to be considered when harmonics are present in the power network. A methodology and new formulae for individual and overall efficiency and energy usage is developed at each frequency (f1, h and H) and forms the main contribution to research in this field. Two case studies were conducted; a measurement based laboratory experiment set-up and a simulated case study. In the set-up, measurements of current, voltage and power at different points in the network for the 1st, 5th and 7th frequencies were taken. Current and voltage results were used for hand calculations to prove the measured power flows and directions. The measurements were taken with a Fluke 345 three-phase harmonic power quality analyzer. For the simulated case study, a network was investigated using the DIgSILENT and SuperHarm software packages. Their results were compared and it was found that DIgSILENT is the preferred package for power results. It was found that the total harmonic distortion limit for voltage in the simulated network exceeded an acceptable level. The harmonic mitigation solution chosen was to design a passive filter to decrease the distortion by shifting the resonance point of the network. The method to design the passive filter and its impact on efficiency and energy usage is included in the thesis. Unique power flow direction diagrams are developed as part of the methodology and form an essential step in the derivation of the new formulae. Efficiencies, power losses and energy usage at individual and combined frequencies were determined. Results showed the negative effects of harmonics on overall efficiency, energy usage and power losses of the system. The methodology and new formulae developed was found to be effective and their application is recommended for use by industry.