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Investigation into alternative protection solutions for distribution networks
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Recently, due to concerns about the liberalization of electricity supply, deregulation and global impact on the environment, securing a reliable power supply has become an important social need worldwide To ensure this need is fulfilled, detailed investigations and developments are In progress on power distribution systems protection and the monitoring of apparatus which Is part of the thesis. The main objective of a protection schemes is mainly to keep the power system stable by isolating only the affected components or the section of the electricity network in which the fault has developed while allowing the rest of the network to continue operating. It is important to note that the protection equipment does not prevent faults from occurring, but it limits the damaging effect of the fault and protects other healthy equipment. This is only achieved if the protection system of the electrical network involved complies with the requirements and purpose of the electrical protection standards. These requirements include the Operational speed, Reliability, Security and Sensitivity. In conventional substations that are still existing Within the utilities networks, a number of long cables are then used to complete the links between substation equipment in order for them to communicate (hardwired). This method is uneconomical and is being phased out completely in the near future. Over the last few years a new standard for substation automation communication has been developed Within the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the IEC 61850. This standard defines the integration requirements of multi-vendor compliant relays and other lED's for multiple protection schemes as well as control and automation techniques. In this particular thesis, Distribution protection is the area of interest, particularly the application of Time and Overcurrent protection schemes. A look into different protection alternatives and the application of new technologies for Electrical Power Distribution Systems that unify protection and control units so that they can be incorporated into Intelligent Substation as opposed to the most existing (conventional substation) is analyzed. The proposed algorithm has been verified through simulations of the CPUT and Eureka three phase power distribution systems. A testing Lab is also part of this thesis and Is meant for experiments as well as simulation performance in order to gain knowledge and skills for designing and engineer substations with lEG 61850 standards equiprnents. The results indicate that the reduction of copper wiring cable has increased and the communication speed has improved and simplified.