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Flow charts and indices for evaluating true efficiency and effectiveness of harmonic filters in power systems
Traditionally, efficiency is defined for sinusoidal networks and not for non-sinusoidal networks. For this reason, the efficiency formula and indices for efficiency calculations are reviewed. The concepts for determining powers, efficiency and power direction of flow in a non-sinusoidal network are explained. A new index „True Efficiency‟ is introduced to represent efficiency in non-sinusoidal circuits. Harmonic filters are installed in networks with harmonic distortion levels above the set standards for harmonic mitigation. However, there are no specific indices for evaluating the effectiveness of filter(s), hence the introduction of the index „Filter Effectiveness‟. Two software tools are utilised to develop flow charts and indices for evaluating true efficiency and effectiveness of harmonic filters in a power system under distorted waveform conditions. In this way, the effect that distortions have on efficiency can be determined and the effectiveness of the mitigation measure in place can be evaluated. The methodologies are developed using a step-by-step approach for two software packages. Three case studies were conducted on a large network. This network has multiple harmonic sources and capacitor banks. The first case study considered a network with two harmonic sources and three capacitor banks of which two are at the point of common coupling (PCC) and one is at a load bus; the second case study considered Case 1 with two capacitor banks at the PCC used as components for the 2nd - order filter and the third case considered Case 2 with a Notch filter added at one of the load buses. The network was simulated using DIgSILENT and SuperHarm software packages. DIgSILENT can calculate powers while SuperHarm gives current and voltages and power is hand calculated. The two packages were used together to test their compatibility and verify the network modelling. For the different investigations conducted, the software-based methodologies developed to calculate true efficiency in a network with multiple harmonic sources and capacitor banks have been shown to be effective. The indices developed for evaluating the effectiveness of harmonic filters proved to be effective too. The two software packages used proved to be compatible as the results obtained are similar. The methodologies can easily be adapted for investigations of other large networks as demonstrated in this study. The true efficiency methodologies are thus recommended for application in this field as it will help determine efficiency for networks with non-linear loads and help mitigate the distortions.