|The Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT) Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) repository holds full-text theses and dissertations submitted for higher degrees at the University (including submissions from former Cape Technikon and Peninsula Technikon).|
A theoretical analysis of the development of tourist guiding in South Africa
The South African Tourism Industry has developed phenomenally since the country adopted and entered into a democratic era in 1994. Between 1966 and 1990, tourist arrivals struggled to reach the 1 million mark. The tourism development history of South Africa was such that international sanctions, poor tourism research and development, and a disjointed and exclusive tourism growth strategy all contributed to an industry that showed very little prospect of major sustainable growth and future success. The tourism industry was never thought capable ofbecoming a major contributor to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country, let alone perceived to possess the potential of becoming a vehicle which would eventually lead to unprecedented, and much needed poverty alleviation and job creation. The myopic strategies and policies of government and government-influenced agencies and organisations were the reason why the period from the 1970's through to the late 1980's showed a general tendency towards tourism stagnation. During this period, there was low investment in the sector and a focus on the narrow white domestic market. As Black South Africans were not allowed to be accommodated in the same hotels as whites or even visit the same beaches as whites, domestic tourism under apartheid geared itself to serve the interests of the privileged white minority population alone (Mkhize, 1994). The period commencing from 1990 until 1998 was characterised by a growth in the tourism industry. The reasons for this growth period are manifold, and include the dismantling ofApartheid, the release of Nelson Mandela, the lifting of international sanctions, the first democratic elections, and the welcoming of South Africa back into the global community of nations. These political milestones also opened up the doors of tourism activity to the previously marginalised sector of the South African population. Tourism arrivals, which had reached the I million mark in 1990, exceeded the 8.4 million mark in 2007. The change in government meant a change in overall policy, which in turn created an enabling environment for future growth of the tourism industry. The process was ushered in with a period oftourism policy and legislation review, all aimed at democratising the sector. The institutional rearrangement of government departments and government-appointed structures and organisations addressed the tourism legislative imperatives - this process resulted in a general reorganisation of the then current exclusive racially orchestrated structures, creating increased accessibility to the mainstream tourism industry. This research has been undertaken in the light ofthe above transformation, and sought to investigate the process of change that has been brought about in the tourism industry, with special reference to the development of the tourist guiding sector. It was imperative to take a closer look at the education and training aspect of the tourist guiding sector and the establishment and structure of the Tourism, Hospitality and Sport Education and Training Authority (THETA). In addition, a focus on international tourist guiding training models as well as emphasis being placed on the tourist guiding centre at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology was provided and finally, an overview of tourist guiding representative bodies and associations was looked at. In concluding, the research would have been incomplete without investigating the development of the broader tourism industry and the legislation, campaigns and initiatives that have been implemented to bring about the much-needed reforms in the tourism industry.