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Development of a normative model for cultural tourism on the Cape Flats
This study is aimed at developing and proposing a normative model for cultural tourism, which should be implemented on the Cape Flats. Normative criteria for cultural tourism were identified through a literature search, followed by an empirical study. Responses to various questions and statements were statistically analysed, interpreted and presented. Tourism stakeholders such as tour operators, travel agents, accommodation establishments and cultural tourism suppliers, including the community of the Cape Flats, can benefit from implementation of the normative model for cultural tourism. This study traces the roots of philosophy in the social sciences, provides a philosophical basis for cultural tourism, followed by a discussion of relevant national, provincial and local legislative frameworks for cultural tourism on the Cape Flats. In addition to the above, a comparative conceptual analysis of cultural tourism in The Gambia is made in order to gain a better understanding of successes and challenges that face destinations, which intend to offer cultural tourism as a tourism product. Developing a normative model for cultural tourism on the Cape Flats should seek to invite active participation from the community from inception phase until implementation. The research identifies and explains elements of model theory, discusses models that are applicable to the research area, and presents an adapted normative, input-output systems model with a feedback mechanism. The normative model proposes an implementation mechanism against various external and internal environmental factors as means to ensure sustainability of cultural offerings on the Cape Flats. The normative model proposes an approach that will facilitate employment in the tourism sector on the Cape Flats, as well as poverty alleviation initiatives as part of corporate social responsibility undertakings by tourism stakeholders. Variables identified in the normative model will assist tourism stakeholders, including the Cape Flats community, to develop cultural offerings for consumption by tourists, the cultural market and sustain cultural tourism, which should improve standards of living for people on the Cape Flats. The normative model for cultural tourism addresses the critical shortage of skills amongst tourism practitioners and offers recommendations to alleviate this shortcoming within the tourism industry. The normative criteria, which is identified in the model, addresses the fact that attention should given to improvement and provision of cultural tourism infrastructure on the Cape Flats. An objective of the normative model for cultural tourism is to facilitate the proposal of guidelines for National, Provincial and Local government policy initiatives regarding tourism and, in particular, cultural tourism on the Cape Flats. This model identifies aims and objectives of the White Paper on Sustainable Tourism Development (1996), the Cape Flats Tourism Framework (2005) and the Tourism Development Framework for the City of Cape Town (2006). Finally, the Cape Flats’ diverse community displays a host of unique cultural experiences and offerings in terms of folklore, history, experiences, food, song and a host of other activities that should be shared with tourists.