Die invloed van teken op die ontwikkeling van skryfvaardighehe van Graad R-leerders in 'n landelike multigraadskool
The aim of the research was to examine the development of writing skills through drawing in order to identify skills and strategies needed by grade R learners of a rural multi-grade school for motor development and invented writing. Appropriate teaching was researched according to which an intervention programme was developed, applied and evaluated. Literature was examined to establish what is already being taught in this development phase and context. When drawing, children not only go through the same universal development stages and inherent biological processes, but their mark-making has meaning regarding communication and writing. During the drawing process children develop control of large and small motor muscle groups. Through daily drawing activities on different levels through interesting presentation these muscle groups are developed, skills mastered and concentration on the learning process improved. When, however, children come from a home context where a stimulating milieu of learning is lacking, it leads, not only to weak sosio-emotional and cognitive development, but can also be linked to weak health and physical growth, which includes large and small motor skills. These large and small motor skills are required for the development of writing skills which in turn are required for future formal teaching. The following questions were answered: Which characteristics of drawing are important in writing skills? What appropriate teaching is necessary for drawing and writing competence? How are teaching of drawing and writing skills currently applied in grade R classes in multi-grade schools? Of what components should an intervention programme consist so that grade R learners of a multi-grade school can benefit with regard to writing skills? What requirements must the intervention programme for this special group meet to implement drawing and writing skills in a sustainable way? Design based research was used as methodology. A literature study was done during the preliminary phase and an intervention programme was designed. During the prototype phase the intervention programme was implemented and honed by repeated design cycles. Assessment showed that the intervention met the preconceived specifications by achieving remarkable results in respect of the general poise, action of drawing, position of drawing, posture, dominance and grip. The development levels of the children were increased by daily drawing accompanied by conversation and writing modelling. During the three phases data was collected in the following ways: informal conversations with the teacher; a semi-structured interview with the teacher; check-lists; a pre and post test; participatory observation; artefacts (children’s art); video recordings and field-notes. A needs analyses and expert appraisal were used as strategies. To be able to write is a basic skill, and without it the future prospects of the children are seriously hampered. Early stimulation and exposure to drawing media and instruments, the manipulation thereof and the development of large and small motor skills to enhance writing skills, therefore play a decisive role in the optimal development of the children. When children have the ability to write it leads to a future of opportunities for schooled and highly schooled labour which in turn contributes to the economic stability of the country.