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Instructional design for training maritime navigating officers
Snyders, Edward Dale
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The maritime industry in South Africa (RSA) is relatively small in comparison with its agricultural and mining industries. In its broadest sense it includes, but is not limited to. • cargo handling and stevedoring; • cargo logistics and administration; • vessel owning and operating with its related industries, such as ships' agents and surveyors and • an array of fishing industries. Maritime education and training in the RSA is fragmented and is offered by technikons (Higher Education and Training Band), technical colleges and training centres (Further Higher Education and Training Bands). Courses offered serve as preparation for Department of Education (National and Provincial) and Department of Transport, Chief Directorate: Shipping (SADoT) examinations. Aspiring officers find it increasingly difficult to complete their experiential training owing to vessel owners flagging-out (registering South African vessels under flags of convenience, e.g. Panama, in a bid to save on operating costs). This implies that cheaper foreign crews may be recruited resulting in an increased deficiency of skilled manpower. The fishing quota system is being revised by the all-inclusive Fisheries Policy Development Committee (FPDC) appointed by the Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. This implies that learners from the previously disadvantaged maritime communities (mainly unskilled) will imminently be allowed access to marine resources. The heterogeneous composition of the class groups, with particular reference to • academic qualification, • age distribution, • categories of fishing industries served, • employer, • mother tongue and • sea-service, exacerbated by the inadequate fixed time constraints of course durations, grossly violates the didactic principle of individualisation. For this reason, a didactically accountable instruction-learning programme for aspirant navigating officers in the fishing industry was formulated in an attempt to remedy current shortcomings in the Maritime Education and Training Development (METD) process. The outcomes based instructional design encompassed the models utilized by Fraser et al (1994: 102) and Tanner & Tanner (1995: 239) because it is vocationally directed and can accommodate the diversity of the adult target group of adult learners. The history and development of, as well as courses offered by, Maritime Education and Training Providers (METP's) in the Western Cape Province, i.e. • Cape Technikon's Department of Maritime Studies, • industry in-house training establishments, • Training Centre for Seamen and • Wingfield Technical College was outlined. An analysis of similar courses offered by METP's abroad, such as • Australian Maritime College, • Canadian Fisheries and Marine Institute of the Memorial University of Newfoundland, • Danish Maritime Authority, • Manukau Polytechnic, New Zealand Maritime School, • National Taiwan Ocean University of the Republic of China on Taiwan and • the Republic of Namibia was made. An empirical investigation by means of questionnaires to vessel-owners and employee representatives in the South African fishing industry were executed in order to establish their training needs and expectations. From the data collated, an outcomes-based Navigating Officer Limited: Fishing (Vessels less than 24 metres) instruction-learning programme was formulated in National Qualifications Framework (NQF) format.