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Title: Detailed non-Newtonian flow behaviour measurements using a pulsed ultrasound velocimetry method: Evaluation, optimisation and application
Authors: Kotze, Reinhardt
Keywords: Ultrasonic Velocity Profiling (UVP);Doppler echography.;Ultrasonic transducer;Material Science and Technology (MST);Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology (SIK);Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solutions;Kaolin and bentonite suspensions.
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: Cape Peninsula University of Technology
Abstract: Ultrasonic Velocity Profiling (UVP) is both a method and a device to measure an instantaneous one-dimensional velocity profile along a measurement axis by using Doppler echography. UVP is an ideal technique since it is non-invasive, works with opaque systems, inexpensive, portable and easy to implement relative to other velocity profile measurement methods. Studies have suggested that the accuracy of the measured velocity gradient close to wall interfaces need to be improved. The reason for this is due to, depending on the installation method, distortion caused by cavities situated in front of ultrasonic transducers, measurement volumes overlapping wall interfaces, refraction of the ultrasonic wave as well as sound velocity variations. A new ultrasonic transducer, which incorporates a delay line material optimised for beam forming could reduce these problems (Wiklund, 2007). If these could be addressed, UVP could be used for the measurement of velocity profiles in complex geometries (e.g. contractions, valves, bends and other pipe fittings) where the shape of the velocity profile is critical to derive models for estimating fluid momentum and kinetic energy for energy efficient designs. The objective of this research work was to optimise the UVP system for accurate complex flow measurements by evaluating a specially designed delay line transducer and implementing advanced signal processing techniques. The experimental work was conducted at the Material Science and Technology (MST) group at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT). This work also formed part of a collaborative project with SIK - The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology. Acoustic characterisation of the ultrasonic transducers using an advanced robotic setup was done at SI K. Different concentrations of the following non-Newtonian fluids exhibiting different rheological characteristics were used for testing: carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solutions, kaolin and bentonite suspensions. Water was used for calibration purposes.
Description: Thesis (DTech (Electrical Engineering))--Cape Peninsula University of Technology, 2011
Appears in Collections:Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering - Doctoral Degree

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