|The Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT) Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) repository holds full-text theses and dissertations submitted for higher degrees at the University (including submissions from former Cape Technikon and Peninsula Technikon).|
Use of high efficient motors for DSM in South Africa's petroleum refineries
Electric motors consume over 60% of the world's generated electricity. In South Africa approximately 65% of the energy generated is consumed by electric motors (Niekerk, 2009). About 95% of motors in use in South Africa are Standard-Efficient Motors (SE-motors) that operate at an average efficiency of 84% to 90%, depending on the size of the motor and the load driven by them. High-Efficient motors (HE-motor) run at an efficiency of 2% to 8% higher than that of SE-motors. In recent years, a drive to replace SE-motors with HE-motors has been promoted for the purpose of Demand Side Management (DSM). The rationale of using HE-motors as a tool of DSM is to harness a small difference in operating efficiency per motor, which can result in a huge reduction in electricity consumption, depending on the number of HE-motors that will replace SE-motors. Reducing the demand for electricity is the key driving factor for DSM in South Africa, so as to relieve the already stressed power generation capacity. Other consequential factors of DSM are to reduce the amount of pollutant gases emitted into the atmosphere. To the electricity users DSM will be a great incentive, as reduced consumption of electricity will decrease the amount of money spent on electricity. Much has been written on the ability of HE-motors to reduce electricity consumption, cost of electricity and global pollution. ESKOM has even demonstrated the faith they have in these motors by giving rebates to motor users who are willing to exchange their existing SE-motors with new HE-motors. The rebates are paid by ESKOM through a newly established DSM program. However, it must be mentioned that savings through HE-motors is not a perfect guarantee. HE-motors have inherent design limitations that may inhibit the saving of energy. To achieve higher efficiency, HE-motors are designed to operate on a smaller slip that consequently increases their speed compared to that of SE-motors (Cheek et al., 1995). Higher rotor speed impacts energy saving abilities of HE-motors when they are used to drive fans, pumps and compressors, normally referred to as centrifugal loads. An increase in speed results in a proportional increase in flow. Power consumed by a motor goes up as a cube of the speed, and the flow rate increases linearly with speed. Motor loads in the petrochemical industry are generally centrifugal, and that is why this thesis focuses on refineries.
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