The aerodynamic design and development of an urban concept vehicle through CFD analysis
This work presents the computational uid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a light road vehicle. Simulations are conducted using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with the wall adapting local eddy (WALE) turbulence model. Simulations include and compare the use of a rolling road, rotating wheels, adaptive re nement as well as showing comparison with a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver and the Spalart- Allmaras (SA) turbulence model. The lift coe cient of the vehicle for the most part was seen to show a much greater di erence and inconsistencies when compared to drag from the comparisons of solvers, turbulence models, re nement and the e ect of rolling road. Determining the drag of a road vehicle can be easily achieved and veri ed using multiple solvers and methods, however, the lift coe cient and its validation require a greater understanding of the vehicle ow eld as well as the solvers, turbulence models and re nement levels capable of correctly simulating the turbulent regions around a vehicle. Using the presented method, it was found that the optimisation of vehicle aerodynamics can easily be done alongside the design evolution from initial low-drag shapes to the nal detail design, ensuring aerodynamic characteristics are controlled with aesthetic change.