An evaluation of fetal growth in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infected women at Khayelitsha and Gugulethu midwifery obstetric units in the Western Cape
A prospective cohort study was done on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected and uninfected women attending Khayelitsha Midwifery Obstetric Unit (MOU) and Gugulethu MOU from June 2003 to December 2004, primarily to establish whether there is an association between HIV infection and Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). B-Mode real time ultrasound imaging was used to monitor fetal growth from ±22 weeks to 36 weeks gestational age. Birth weight, gestational age at delivery, gender, placental weight, and maternal complications were also included. Maternal factors considered included age, weight, parity, singleton versus multiple pregnancy, previous IUGR or preterm delivery, previous fetal abnormality, social habits viz. cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug use, and vascular disease viz. Diabetes, hypertension, renal disease, cardiac disease and collagen disease. A secondary objective was to establish whether the CD4 T-lymphocyte count possibly modulated the presence of JUGR. All HIV infected women were given antiretroviral therapy according to the standard Protocol of the Provincial Government of Western Cape (2002).