Markers of chronic immune activation and T-cell function in hyperglycaemia
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterised by hyperglycaemia; continuous activation of T-lymphocytes and immune dysregulation. Although the exact mechanisms of these phenomena are not fully understood, there is strong evidence suggesting the involvement of T-cells in the chronic inflammatory environment which could predispose diabetics to infections and thrombotic events. The effect of hyperglycaemia on cells of the innate immune system in T2DM has been well described and implicated in the progression of the disorder and the development of its complications. However, studies investigating the adaptive immune response still remain scarce and controversial. Thus, investigating T-cells in hyperglycaemic conditions could provide further insight into the immune dysfunction observed in T2DM and assist in identifying pathways which could be targeted in the disease management and treatment. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate chronic immune activation by measuring the expression of T-cell activation markers in hyperglycaemia and compare the results to those in the normoglycaemic group.