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In vitro propagation studies of rare Argyroderma species strictly endemic to the Knersvlakte region of South Africa
A study was conducted to investigate the effects of various media composition and wounding treating on the in vitro propagation of Argyroderma subalbum and A. testiculare explants derived from mature plants, antioxidants and plant growth regulators (PGR) concentrations. One experiment consisted of 3 medium types including Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium strength, vitamin supplement. Fifteen replicates were used for each treatment. The shoots were then sub-cultured to ten replicate regenerated medium consisting of varying levels and combination of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 10 μM 6-Benzyladenine (BA) supplements. In another experiment consisted of varying levels of auxins with MS medium strength, activated charcoal (AC) and vitamin supplements ten replicates were used for each treatment. Results indicated the positive role of cytokinins types’ 6-Benzyladenine (BA), 2-isopentyladenine (2iP) and Kinetin in inducing callus formation from wounded explants. The highest rate of friable callus formation of wounded explants was observed in media containing vitamin supplementation with BA at 10 μM. Callus formation significantly increased with the addition of vitamins at 10 μM on BA, 2iP and kinetin. With regards to the effects of various media composition and wounding explants on in vitro growth and regeneration of A. subalbum and A. testiculare, significant results were achieved with BA, 2iP and kinetin concentrations on explants discoloration and callus formation. The antioxidant treatment, AC did not reduce explants discoloration, but the induction of the callus was developed furthermore, results showed that IAA with BA concentrations without addition of AC there was significantly difference on both species but A. subalbum dominated with browning intensity (Chapter 3). Only sub-culturing of the explants succeeded in preventing explants discoloration and subsequently increased the number of shoots. The interaction between Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations combined with BA resulted in the most effective technique in reducing explants discoloration at the media contact point. This study provides an insight into the contributing factor and methods of overcoming the major problem of phenolic oxidation and promoting the in vitro growth and regeneration of A. subalbum and A. testiculare.