|The Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT) Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) repository holds full-text theses and dissertations submitted for higher degrees at the University (including submissions from former Cape Technikon and Peninsula Technikon).|
In-vitro propagation studies of the endangered succulents Drosanthemum Micans and Drosanthemum Hallii (Aizoaceae)
Drosanthemum micans and Drosanthemum hallii are endangered succulent shrubs of horticultural and medicinal value. They are restricted to the Succulent Karroo, which is one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. The species risk extinction from illegal over-harvesting for water-wise gardens, erosion by occasional flush floods from ephemeral rivers, competition from alien invasive species, overgrazing and clearing of land for agriculture and human settlement. Although seeds and cuttings may be used in propagating these species, they often require seasonal collection and planting and cuttings struggle to establish, hence the need for in-vitro propagation as an alternative solution. Thus, the main objective of the study was to develop a method for rapid in-vitro shoot and root multiplication and acclimatization of D. micans and D. hallii. To initiate shoot formation, disinfected leaf and stem nodal explants were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (1962) media supplemented with different rates (0, 10, 20 or 30μM) of 2-isopentyladenine, 6-Benzyladenine and kinetin for D. hallii or 2-isopentyladenine, 6-Benzyladenine and Thiadiazuron for D. micans. Shoots from explants were rooted in varying rates (0, 10, 20 or 30μM) of IAA for root initiation. Three media, which were used in previous studies, were tested for acclimatization of rooted explants in i) vermiculite, ii) sand (50%): vermiculite (50%) or iii) sand (75%): perlite (25%). For quantitative evaluation of plant stress, chlorophyll fluorescence index (Fv/Fm) was measured as a proxy for plant stressf stress. It emerged that stem nodal explants of D. hallii tend to produce multiple shoots whilst leaf explants tended to produce callus when cultured in full-strength Murashige and Skoog (1962). Shoot multiplication was optimal in both D. hallii and D. micans at 10 μM of kinetin. Root formation in both D. hallii and D. micans only occurred when shoots were transferred to a full-strength Murashige and Skoog (1962) media without any phytohormones added. The intensity of tissue browning increased at higher levels of cytokinins, suggesting an interaction of plant growth regulators with exudates from explants. Different acclimatization media tested showed no significant differences in the level of stress (Fv/Fm). It is recommended that Murashige and Skoog (1962) media with10 μM kinetin be used for shoot development and multiplication, followed by transfer of the shoots to fresh full-strength Murashige and Skoog (1962) media without hormones for root development. Acclimatization of the rooted explants was possible in one of the following media: i) vermiculite, ii) sand (50%): vermiculite (50%) or iii) sand (75%): perlite (25%) and in a misted greenhouse (ca. 60% RH), with gradual weekly reductions in humidity by 10% over 2 weeks.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Protoplast isolation and plant regeneration in Bambara groundnut : a platform for transient gene expression Ayeleso, Taiwo Betty (Cape Peninisula University of Technology, 2016)Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea), a dicotyledonous plant is a legume which has a potential to contribute to food security and nutrition. Protoplasts are naked plant cells lacking cell walls. Viable protoplasts are ...
Effect of water stress and arbuscular mycorrhiza on the plant growth and antioxidant potential of Pelargonium reniforme Curtis and Pelargonium sidoides DC Ingarfield, Patricia Jean (Cape Peninsula University of Technology, 2018)Pelargoniums have been studied extensively for their medicinal properties. P. reniforme and P. sidoides in particular are proven to possess antimicrobial, antifungal and antibiotic abilities due to their high antioxidant ...
Functional role of ammonium and nitrate in regulating transpiration for mass-flow acquisition of nutrients in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Naku, Mandilakhe (Cape Peninsula University of Technology, 2017)Transpiration serves in leaf cooling, maintaining turgor pressure, promoting xylem transport of nutrient solutes from roots to shoots and delivering mobile soil nutrients to root surfaces. Soil availability of nitrogen can ...