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Bactericidal efficacy of wound gauze treated with chitosan nanomaterial hybrids of zinc, silver and copper on common wound bacteria
Maintenance of optimum wound chemistry is important to ensure timely healing of a wound. Bacterial infections impair the process of wound healing by producing toxins that alter the chemical environment in and around the wound. The imbalance in the wound chemistry prolongs healing and opens doors to opportunistic infections. Bacteria have developed resistance to conventional bactericides hence, there is need for search of new bactericides that can control bacteria in and around the wound. Therefore, new chemical or biochemical bactericides, which are not resisted by the bacteria, can be explored to control bacterial life around the wound in a bid to maintain optimum wound healing chemistry. Materials such as chitosan, zinc oxide, copper oxide and silver have showed remarkable potential as both bactericidal and wound healing agents. In this work silver, zinc oxide, and copper oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and their chitosan composites (CH-NPs) were synthesized using the chemical reduction method and simple chelation respectively to produce nanoparticles of Ag, ZnO, and CuO as well as composites of CH-ZnO, CH-Ag, CH-CuO, and CH-ZnO-Ag-CuO. Formation of the NPs was confirmed by the exhibition of characteristic peaks in UV-Visible and Fourier Transform Infrared Resonance (FTIR) spectroscopy as well as X-ray diffraction. The nanoparticles (NPs) had optical and electronic band gaps in the range 1 to 5eV indicating their semi-conductive nature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) investigations depicted the crystalline structures of the NPs to be base-centred, face-centred, and hexagonal for Ag, CuO, and ZnO respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies exhibited spherical, hexagonal, and rod-shaped shapes for silver, copper oxide, zinc oxide NPs respectively. Electrochemical investigations of the pure NPs indicated the existence of both the adsorption and the diffusion controlled electron transfer processes at electrode surfaces as well as fast electron transfer rate as depicted by the charge transfer coefficient and standard rate constant parameter values. FTIR spectra of CH-NPs composites depicted new excitation bands absent in spectra of both chitosan and the NPs. The spectra also indicated the deformation and absence of the amine (-NH2) and hydroxyl bands (-OH) within the CH-NPs composites. UV-Visible spectroscopy investigations of the CH-NPs composites exhibited blue-shifts of the λmax with respect to the NPs. The FTIR and UV-Visible spectra confirmed the existence of bonding between the chitosan and the NPs. The optical band gap energies of all the CH-NPs composites fell within the range of 2.0 to 4.5 eV indicating that the CH-NPs fell in the category of the semi-conducting materials after chelating with the chitosan.