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Effect of anchomanes difformis extract on biochemical and histological parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetes and diabetic complications
Alabi, Toyin Dorcas
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Diabetes mellitus is one of the major health challenges facing the world today and it is not restricted by age, gender, education or urbanisation. Increased oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. The progression of diabetes mellitus leads to pathological events and alterations in many tissues of the body, thereby causing damage to these tissues and organs. Anchomanes difformis is has a strong ethnopharmacological relevance and it is known for its diverse traditional uses against hyperglycemia, kidney damage, pain, wounds, inflammation, onchocerciasis and gastrointestinal pathologies amongst others. Scientific investigations have been performed on some of these ethnobotanical claims on Anchomanes difformis using animal models. While some of these claims have been established scientifically, others are yet to be explored. In vivo experimental study on the leaves of Anchomanes difformis revealed its hypoglycemic effect, however, there is no information on the possible effect of Anchomanes difformis on oxidative stress, inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in diabetes mellitus. Therefore, this study investigated the potential benefits of Anchomanes difformis in increased oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in a diabetic model. The study also assessed the ameliorative effect of Anchomanes difformis in diabetes-induced damage in the organs such as the liver, heart, kidney, testis and epididymis. The first phase of the study compared the antioxidant capacity and phytochemical characterisation of three different solvent extracts; aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic from the leaves and rhizome of Anchomanes difformis. All these six extracts (3 extracts each from the leaves and rhizome) exhibited antioxidant properties, however aqueous extract demonstrated the highest antioxidant potential, hence it was selected for further experiment in the study. Furthermore, certain bioactive compounds with antioxidant, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties were identified in Anchomanes difformis. The second phase of the study involved the induction of diabetes, treatment with AD and standard drug and euthanasia followed by biochemical investigations in male Wistar rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced with two-weeks administration of 10% fructose, followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40mg/kgBW). Dosages of 200 and 400 mg/kgBW of Anchomanes difformis leaves extract were administered for six weeks to diabetic and normal rats which served as treatment controls. The effect of Anchomanes difformis on glycemic indices, body weights, relative organ weights, organ function markers, antioxidant statuses, inflammatory biomarkers, apoptosis and structural integrity of the liver, kidney, pancreas, testis and the epididymis were conducted. The administration of streptozotocin led to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, body weight loss, increased inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis, reduced sperm concentration, viability and distorted sperm morphology. It also induced tissue damage in the liver, kidney, pancreas, testis and epididymis. Treatment with both doses of Anchomanes difformis improved organ functions, markedly reduced and repaired tissue damage in a dose-dependent manner and comparable to the standard drug; glibenclamide. Furthermore, Anchomanes difformis distinctly lowered blood glucose, abnormal lipid levels, enhanced antioxidant status, modulated inflammation, reduced apoptosis and increased sperm functions better than glibenclamide in diabetic rats. In conclusion, the protective and ameliorative properties of Anchomanes difformis projects it as a potential new, reliable therapeutic agent that should be explored and considered in the management of diabetes mellitus and its associated complications.