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Synergistic effects in clathrate selectivity
The inclusion behaviour of a series of hydroxyl hosts with a variety of liquid guests has been investigated. The host 9-(4-methoxyphenyl)-9H-xanthen-9-ol (A1), C20H16O3, forms inclusion compounds with aniline (ANI), 3-picoline (3PIC), morpholine (MORPH), Nmethylacetamide (NMA) and N-methylformamide (NMF). Their structures have been elucidated and correlated with their thermal behaviour. The inclusion compounds A1ANI and A1MORPH were successfully solved in space group P21/c, whereas A13PIC was solved in 𝑃ī. Non-isothermal kinetics of desolvation were performed for A13PIC and A1MORPH. The packing of A13PIC and A1MORPH is characterized by (Host)(Guest) hydrogen bonds, whereas A1ANI is stabilised by (Host)(Host) hydrogen bonding. Three structures were obtained for the host A1 and the guest N-methylacetamide, with structural formulas of C20H16O3 C3H7NO (A1NMA), C20H16O3 2C3H7NO (A12NMA) and 2C20H16O3 2C3H7NO (2A12NMA). The packing of A1NMA, A12NMA and 2A12NMA are characterized by (Host)-OHO-(Guest) and (Guest)-NHO-(Guest) hydrogen bonds, which gave hydrogen bonding patterns of 𝐶2 2(7), 𝐶3 3(11) and 𝐶4 2(11) respectively. The hydrate A1NMFH2O was successfully solved in the triclinic space group 𝑃ī. The A1NMFH2O hydrogen bond pattern may be described according to Etter’s notation as 𝑅4 2(8) and 𝑅6 6(16). The host 9-(3-methoxyphenyl)-9H-xanthen-9-ol (A2), C20H16O3, forms inclusion compounds with morpholine (A2MORPH), N-methylacetamide (A2NMA) and N-methylformamide (A2NMF), with host-guest ratios 1:1. The crystal structure of the apohost was solved in Pbca with Z=8. The structures of A2MORPH and A2NMF were solved in 𝑃ī, whereas A2NMA was solved in P21/n. The packing of these structures is stabilised by (Host)(Guest) hydrogen bonds. The host 5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-ol (A26), C22H18O2, forms inclusion compounds with aniline (A26ANI) and morpholine (A26MORPH). A26MORPH and A26ANI crystallised in the space groups Pc and 𝑃ī respectively. The packing of these structures are characterized by (Host)-OHO-(Host) hydrogen bonding. A guest exchange reaction was performed. The host compounds 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-ol (C21H15OCl), 5-[3(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-ol (C22H15OF3) and 5-(naphthalen-1-yl)-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-ol (C25H18O) form inclusion compounds with morpholine. All three structures were solved in 𝑃ī with the host molecules hydrogen bonded to the morpholine guests.