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Effect of fluid substitutions on the total antioxidant capacity of breads :comparing the indigenous herbal teas rooibos and honeybush with black tea
Septoe, Nina Lee
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Oxidative stress has been implicated in the development of a number of chronic degenerative diseases. These diseases can often be prevented by dietary and lifestyle changes. One major dietary aspect is increasing the intake of plant foods, such as fruit and vegetables as they are rich in the major nutrient and nonnutrient antioxidants. The South African population does not have an adequate intake of fruit and vegetables and many barriers have been noted against increasing the intake of these foods. Other avenues should therefore be sought to increase the antioxidant intake. One such avenue is to use a basic food item consumed often as an antioxidant carrier to increase the antioxidant intake. Much interest has developed in functional foods and their therapeutic effects as well as the use of nutraceuticals in food product development and food fortification. Tea and its polyphenols, due to the antioxidant properties, is a potentially viable option for nutraceutical and functional food use. Rooibos and honeybush herbal teas, native to South Africa, can be potential nutraceutical sources to increase antioxidant levels of food due to their unique polyphenol content. The objective of the study was to increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of a basic food item consumed regularly by most South Africans, such as brown bread through fluid manipulation using rooibos, honeybush and black teas respectively, as the replacement fluid for water in a standardised bread recipe formulation. The TAC of these experimental breads were compared to the TAC of the bread produced with no fluid manipulation (control bread) and a commercially processed bread (reference bread). The experimental breads were prepared using 2% weight per volume (w/v) and 5% (w/v) concentration levels for rooibos, honeybush and black tea respectively. To ascertain the TAC of the experimental breads, the fluorescein(FL)-based oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORACFL) method was used. The hydrophilic (H)-ORACFL assay was used as the teas contain polyphenols which favour a water environment. The results indicated that the H-ORACFL of the control bread using water as the fluid and the commercial reference bread was significantly different (p < 0.05 for each) to all the experimental bread formulations besides for the 2% (w/v) honeybush experimental bread formulation. The 2% (w/v) honeybush experimental bread formulation was therefore not considered for the consumer acceptance testing. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the H-ORACFL of the 2% (w/v) rooibos and black tea experimental bread formulations, but the H-ORACFL of the 5% (w/v) black tea experimental bread formulation was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of the 5% (w/v) rooibos experimental bread formulation. This particular experimental bread formulation had a “golden-orange” colour with a pungent smell due to the increase in rooibos concentration. The 5% (w/v) black tea experimental bread formulation, however, had noted negative sensory attributes of being densely textured with a very dark colour and a pungent and overpowering taste of black tea. These sensory attributes and TAC results lead to the rooibos experimental breads containing 5% (w/v) (as bread A) and 2% (w/v) (as bread B) chosen for the consumer acceptance testing and rooibos being a proudly South African product. The participants (n = 85) of the consumer acceptance testing participated voluntarily and were regular bread consumers. The sample was mostly female (57.6%), in the age group of 18 to 24 years (54.1%), with an education level of between three to four years post-matric/-grade 12 (71.7%) and single, living on their own without children (76.4%). They also represented a sample which had characteristics of a healthy lifestyle. Most participants perceived themselves as being of an optimal body weight (55.2%) and the majority was non-smokers (74.1%), physically active (63.5%), having no family history of chronic disease (69.4%) and not consuming dietary supplements (70.5%). Three sensory attributes of the experimental breads were rated for the acceptance testing and included appearance/colour, flavour/taste and texture/mouthfeel. Both the experimental bread formulations was accepted favourably regarding the above-mentioned sensory attributes. The three liking acceptance categories, ‘neither like nor dislike’ (neutral response), ‘like’ and ‘like very much’ were the most commonly indicated by the participants which also resulted in the experimental breads being rated as fair, good and very good according to the development scores. Although both breads were very similarly scored, there was a trend for bread A to be rated slightly higher regarding the above-mentioned sensory attributes. The acceptance category, ‘like’/good was scored the highest for bread A according to the sensory attributes of appearance/colour (56.5%), flavour/taste (55.3%) and texture/mouthfeel (50.6%). There was no significant association/difference (p > 0.05 for each) between the participants’ demographic characteristics and their overall acceptance of the experimental breads. Most of the participant biographic characteristics also had no significant (p > 0.05 for each) impact on the sensory attribute acceptance of the experimental breads. Although the majority (75%) of the participants consumed rooibos, there was no significant (p > 0.05) association/difference between the participants’ tea consumption and their acceptance of the experimental breads. Although most participants (64%) had no awareness of functional foods, most indicated willingness to purchase foods with added health benefits (93%) and to pay more for foods with added health benefits (73%). These results indicated a general acceptance of bread with functional food characteristics and the possibility of purchasing such products with added health benefits and even at a higher price premium.