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Functional properties of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) non-starch polysaccharides in model and food systems
Diedericks, Claudine Florett
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The aim of this study was to evaluate bambara groundnut [BGN] non-starch polysaccharides [NSP] subject to the incorporation into model and food systems with a view to establish their functional and physicochemical properties. BGN insoluble dietary fibre [BGNIF] and soluble dietary fibre [BGNSF] were successfully extracted from four varieties (black-eye: BLE, red: RED, brown: BRN and brown-eye: BRE). Physicochemical properties evaluated revealed the high bulk density of all BGNIF and BGNSF varieties, which could contribute to cost-effective packaging. The microstructures of BGNIFs were irregular in shape with different sizes. The colour parameters (lightness, redness, yellowness, chroma and hue angle) differed significantly [p ≤ 0.05] across all BGNIF and BGNSF varieties; and indicated a yellowish-red colour for BGNIFs and a light yellow colour for BGNSFs. Negligible amounts of condensed tannins [CT] were found in BGNIFs (0.014 – 0.160 mg.g-1). Higher amounts polyphenols [PP] were present in BGNSFs (45.42 – 55.90 mg.g-1 gallic acid equivalents [GAE]) compared to the amount PP in BGNIFs (6.14 – 15.56 mg.g-1 GAE). Major sugars identified were arabinose/galactose, xylose and mannose in BGNIFs, and xylose and mannose in BGNSFs. The functional properties evaluated revealed high swelling capacity of BGNIFs (6.37 – 7.72 ml.g-1) and no significant [p > 0.05] difference in water retention capacity. Fat absorption capacity ranged from 1.38 – 1.52 g oil.g-1 dry weight for BGNIFs and 4.04 – 4.55 g oil.g-1 dry weight for BGNSFs. Variability in BGNIF (91.2%) and BGNSF (79.4%) physicochemical and functional properties could both be explained by two principal components (BGNIF component 1: PP, redness, yield; and component 2: xylose, yellowness and chroma; BGNSF component 1: yellowness, chroma, mannose content; and component 2: redness, fat absorption and fructose content). Following an IV optimal mixture design, an optimum white bread formulation was obtained using 59.5% water, 4.3% yeast and 8.5% BGNIF. Bread enriched with the four BGNIF varieties (BLE, RED, BRN and BRE) were tested for several physicochemical properties. Significant [p ≤ 0.05] differences existed between the control and BGNIF enriched loaves for crumb grain characteristics (including pore area distribution, feret angle, circularity, roundness and aspect ratio). Specific loaf volume of BGNIF enriched loaves ranged from 3.33 – 3.85 ml.g-1 and were significantly [p ≤ 0.05] lower compared to the control bread (4.16 ml.g-1). Favourable texture characteristics obtained with the BGNIF enriched breads were lower hardness, chewiness and gumminess compared to the control loaf. Crust and crumb colour parameters (lightness, redness, yellowness, chroma and hue angle) were significantly [p ≤ 0.05] different across all loaves. BRE BGNIF bread (3.43 ± 0.20) had the significantly [p ≤ 0.05] lowest crumb colour difference compared to the control bread; whilst BRN (1.72 ± 0.42) and BRE (2.44 ± 0.78) loaves had the lowest significant [p ≤ 0.05] crust colour difference compared to the control. Favourable chemical properties were the high total dietary fibre [TDF] (7.14 – 8.33%) content of all BGNIF enriched loaves compared to the control loaf (4.96%). Significant [p ≤ 0.05] differences were also observed for some loaves for moisture content, condensed tannins and polyphenol content. Variability in bread physicochemical properties was differentiated by three components (component 1: bread textural properties; component 2: specific loaf volume and bread lightness; component 3: crumb colour parameters) which accounted for a cumulative variation of 92.8%. All bread loaves were also sensorially acceptable as rated moderately like to like very much (>3 rating on a 5-point hedonic scale) by consumers for all parameters (appearance, crust and crumb colour, aroma, taste, texture and overall acceptability) evaluated. Furthermore, brown BGNSF was tested for stabilising effects in an orange beverage emulsion. BGNSF and orange oil were varied at two levels each based on a 22 augmented factorial design and the effects determined on the equilibrium backscattering [BS] flux as emulsion stability indicator. The BS profiles which resulted from the Turbiscan stability analysis revealed flocculation at low rates as the major destabilisation mechanism. The optimal formulation producing a stable emulsion was identified as low oil (6%) and high BGNSF (30%) concentrations. The objective of this study was therefore achieved and showed that positive physicochemical and functional properties are associated with BGNIF and BGNSF from black-eye, red, brown and brown-eye varieties. Furthermore, the incorporation of BGN fibres in white bread and a beverage emulsion was shown to contribute positive technological properties in these systems.