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Effects of different pineapple dietary fibres on the quality parameters and cost of beef species sausage
The nutrient profile of meat and meat products make them a major protein and minerals source for non- vegetarian human beings. However, their high fat content and the saturated fatty acid profile associate them with increased risk of lifestyle diseases and occurrences of cancers. Researchers have focused on fat replacement and fatty acid profile modification without compromising the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of meat products. Leaner ingredients are expensive hence the use of low/non-calorie adding ingredients such as water, vegetable oils and oat bran. In this study, three pineapple dietary fibres (PDF), NSP 60, NSP 100 and NSP 200 with water binding capacities (WBC) of 1: 8; 1: 7.4; 1: 7.8 (g/g), respectively, were assessed for their WBC in species sausage at levels 0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%. Water was added in accordance to the specific WBC capacity of the fibres, replacing pork back fat. The WBC of the fibre in the meat emulsion was assessed by extracting the loosely bound fluid by centrifugation. Fibres NSP 100 and NSP 200 proved to be of better water binding than NSP 60 which had the highest total expressible fluid (TEF) at all levels. Although differing significantly in WBC at all levels, all the fibres excellently bound water at 1% level. The three PDF (at 1% level) were then assessed with regard to chemical, physical, and textural attributes in species sausage. Proximate analysis showed that the control sausages (no fibre), differed significantly from the sausages containing PDF. Emulsion stability analysis was based on TEF, cooking loss and purge. Sausages containing NSP 200 PDF did not significantly differ to the control in terms of TEF and cooking loss. Sausages containing NSP 100 had the lowest cooking loss although not significantly different to the control and NSP 200 containing sausages. NSP 60 PDF performed significantly poorly in terms of TEF and cooking loss. The control had a significantly lower purge comparing to sausages containing which were not different. The pH value of the control was significantly higher than the samples containing fibres which also differed from each other. Inclusion of fibre in the species resulted in a significant increase in lightness, hue and chroma as compared to the control. Textural parameters for the control were significantly higher than the fibre containing sausages, except for cohesiveness which was similar for all sausages. This study concluded that NSP 100 could be the most suitable for use in species sausage, followed by the NSP 200 and lastly the NSP 60. Addition of PDF, in combination with water to a species sausage can be a viable way of cutting costs since the formulation cost of all the fibre containing sausages was lower in comparison to the control. Fibre and water addition can be a positive means of reducing the lipid fraction in sausages and other meat products, increasing the dietary fibre component and hence improving the health status of meat product consumers.