|The Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT) Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) repository holds full-text theses and dissertations submitted for higher degrees at the University (including submissions from former Cape Technikon and Peninsula Technikon).|
An investigation of safety and security measures in Cape Town with respect to the 2010 Soccer World Cup tournament
Over the years, the history of football has been characterised by several incidents of violence and disasters. According to Helding et al. (2002:4) globally, since 1945, approximately 1,000 people are believed to have lost their lives and about 3,400 people have been injured in nearly 30 serious soccer stadium accidents. In 1989, English soccer witnessed a stampede that left around 96 people dead at Hillsborough stadium in Sheffield during an FA cup semi-final match between Liverpool and Nottingham. Similar incidents in Africa occurred in Ghana in May 2001 when 126 supporters died after a stampede at Accra stadium at the end of a local league game. In South Africa, Ellis Park stadium witnessed a similar disaster on 11 April 2001, which left 43 people dead when soccer giants Kaizer Chiefs and Orlando Pirates clashed in a premier league soccer game. South Africa lost the bid to host the 2004 Olympic Games in Cape Town in favour of Athens and the 2006 FIFA World Cup to Germany as a result of perceived high crime rate. Whether perceived or real, issues of safety and security impact negatively on the image of a host nation. On the other hand, South Africa was selected to host the 2010 FIFA World Cup competition, despite a continued prevalence of high crime rates across the country. More effort from the Government is needed to guarantee adequate safety and security at soccer stadiums, training venues, and other areas used for public gatherings. Stakeholders that deal with safety and security, such as SAPS, Metro Police, Fire Brigade, and emergency medical services, should be deployed in such a way that they can respond quickly to emergency situations. A literature review has shown a close relationship between crime and event tourism. The crime mapping concept, which covers hot spot theory, routine activity, crime pattern approach and rational choice theory, helps in the understanding that some areas may be more affected by crime than others and that criminals' motivations can differ. Some of the most recent mega large-scale events used in the literature review includes: FIFA Soccer World Cup Competitions in Korea/Japan in 2002 and in Germany in 2006. This has provided guidance for South African organisers in terms of dealing with security issues. These examples have also provided a framework of reference on how to garner support and collaboration of national and international security agencies, which are relevant to the staging of the 2010 Soccer World Cup in South Africa. The foundation of this research considers the employees views concerning safety, security and health in Cape Town. It is envisioned that these ideas can strengthen future management decisions with regard to preparing safety, security and emergency services for major events such as the 2010 Soccer World Cup. This should not only involve taking note of security staff ideas, but also incorporating them into the grand national safety and security strategy and ensuring the full implementation of the security strategy at ground-level.